Topic : Personal Computer
Leader : M Ikhwan Davian
A personal computer is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user with no intervening computer operator.
Computer consists of 3 parts :
Definition of Hardware
Hardware is devices contained in the pc and used to operate a computer, the hardware consists of several components, namely:
- Computer Case
A computer case is the enclosure that contains the main components of a computer Cases are usually constructed from steel or aluminium, although other materials such as wood and plastic have been used. Cases can come in many different sizes, or form factors. The size and shape of a computer case is usually determined by the form factor of the motherboard that it is designed to accommodate, since this is the largest and most central component of most computers. Consequently, personal computer form factors typically specify only the internal dimensions and layout of the case. Form factors for rack-mounted and blade servers may include precise external dimensions as well, since these cases must themselves fit in specific enclosures. Example : ATX, SIMBADA, DELL, ZYREX
The central processing unit, or CPU, is that part of a computer which executes software program instructions. In older computers this circuitry was formerly on several printed circuit boards, but in PCs is a single integrated circuit. Nearly all PCs contain a type of CPU known as a microprocessor. The microprocessor often plugs into the motherboard using one of many different types of sockets. IBM PC compatible computers use an x86-compatible processor, usually made by Intel, AMD, VIA Technologies or Transmeta. Apple Macintosh computers were initially built with the Motorola 680×0 family of processors, then switched to the PowerPC series (a RISC architecture jointly developed by Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola), but as of 2006, Apple switched again, this time to x86-compatible processors by Intel. Modern CPUs are equipped with a fan attached via heat sink. Example : NVIDIA, AMD, INTEL
The motherboard, also referred to as systemboard or mainboard, is the primary circuit board within a personal computer. Many other components connect directly or indirectly to the motherboard. Motherboards usually contain one or more CPUs, supporting circuitry – usually integrated circuits (ICs) – providing the interface between the CPU memory and input/output peripheral circuits, main memory, and facilities for initial setup of the computer immediately after power-on (often called boot firmware or, in IBM PC compatible computers, a BIOS). In many portable and embedded personal computers, the motherboard houses nearly all of the PC’s core components. Often a motherboard will also contain one or more peripheral buses and physical connectors for expansion purposes. Sometimes a secondary daughter board is connected to the motherboard to provide further expandability or to satisfy space constraints. Example : Nextboard, ASUS.
A PC’s main memory is fast storage that is directly accessible by the CPU, and is used to store the currently executing program and immediately needed data. PCs use semiconductor random access memory (RAM) of various kinds such as DRAM, SDRAM or SRAM as their primary storage. Which exact kind depends on cost/performance issues at any particular time. Main memory is much faster than mass storage devices like hard disks or optical discs, but is usually volatile, meaning it does not retain its contents (instructions or data) in the absence of power, and is much more expensive for a given capacity than is most mass storage. Main memory is generally not suitable for long-term or archival data storage.
- Hard Disk
Mass storage devices store programs and data even when the power is off; they do require power to perform read and write functions during usage. Although flash memory has dropped in cost, the prevailing form of mass storage in personal computers is still the hard disk.
The disk drives use a sealed head/disk assembly (HDA) which was first introduced by IBM’s “Winchester” disk system. The use of a sealed assembly allowed the use of positive air pressure to drive out particles from the surface of the disk, which improves reliability.
If the mass storage controller provides for expandability, a PC may also be upgraded by the addition of extra hard disk or optical disc drives. For example, BD-ROMs, DVD-RWs, and various optical disc recorders may all be added by the user to certain PCs. Standard internal storage device connection interfaces are PATA, Serial ATA, SCSI example : Seagate, Maxtor.
- VGA Card
The video card – otherwise called a graphics card, graphics adapter or video adapter – processes and renders the graphics output from the computer to the computer display, and is an essential part of the modern computer. On older models, and today on budget models, graphics circuitry tended to be integrated with the motherboard but, for modern flexible machines, they are supplied in PCI, AGP, or PCI Express format.
When the IBM PC was introduced, most existing business-oriented personal computers used text-only display adapters and had no graphics capability. Home computers at that time had graphics compatible with television signals, but with low resolution by modern standards owing to the limited memory available to the eight-bit processors available at the time. Example : ATI radeon, Nvidia, GeForce, Intel
In computing, a keyboard is an arrangement of buttons that each correspond to a function, letter, or number. They are the primary devices of inputting text. In most cases, they contain an array of keys specifically organized with the corresponding letters, numbers, and functions printed or engraved on the button. They are generally designed around an operators language, and many different versions for different languages exist. In English, the most common layout is the QWERTY layout, which was originally used in typewriters. They have evolved over time, and have been modified for use in computers with the addition of function keys, number keys, arrow keys, and OS specific keys. Often, specific functions can be achieved by pressing multiple keys at once or in succession, such as inputting characters with accents or opening a task manager. Programs use keyboard shortcuts very differently and all use different keyboard shortcuts for different program specific operations, such as refreshing a web page in a web browser or selecting all text in a word processor. Example : komik, butterfly.
A Mouse on a computer is a small, slideable device that users hold and slide around to point at, click on, and sometimes drag objects on screen in a graphical user interface using a pointer on screen. Almost all Personal Computers have mice. It may be plugged into a computer’s rear mouse socket, or as a USB device, or, more recently, may be connected wirelessly via a USB antenna or Bluetooth antenna. In the past, they had a single button that users could press down on the device to “click” on whatever the pointer on the screen was hovering over. Now, however, many Mice have two or three buttons(possibly more); a “right click” function button on the mouse, which performs a secondary action on a selected object, and a scroll wheel, which users can rotate using their fingers to “scroll” up or down. The scroll wheel can also be pressed down, and therefore be used as a third button. Some mouse wheels may be tilted from side to side to allow sideways scrolling. Different programs make use of these functions differently, and may scroll horizontally by default with the scroll wheel, open different menus with different buttons, among others. These functions may be user defined through software utilities. Example : komik.
Definition of Software
The term standard software in Indonesian is the software. software is a collection of some of the commands that are executed by the machine running the computer in her job
Software is also an electronic data that is stored in such a way by the computer itself
In the broadest sense, computer software can be interpreted as a procedure pengoprasian
Software is a component in the data procession system in the form of programs and other engineering techniques to control the system
A. Software functions
1. identifies the program
2. preparing the application program in order to work procedure controlled all computer equipment
3. mengtur and make work more efficient
B. Types of software
1. operating system
3. programming languages
C. Operating system (operating system)
1. understanding of the operating system (operating system)
The operating system is a collection of programs and procedures rouine made to minimize the role of computer use in computer systems and to enlarge the system efiesiensi
2. function of the operating system (operating system)
• as a management process that mecakup preparation
• as a resource relating to the control of software
• as a data management
3. kinds of systems oprasi (operating system)
• Microsoft Windows
• Mac OS
Windows is one of the mainstay microsoft opersi system that is widely used today because it has many features that spoil the wearer mampuh
b. MACINTOSA / MAC OS
Macintosa is one type of Power PC-based PCs manufactured by Apple Computer launched in January 1984
Linux is a UNIX-like operating system is independent of the POSIX impelementasi include virtual truemultitasking memoriy deman-loading shared libraries, proper memory management, and multiuser
Linux is the operating system is widely distributed with geratis under the GNU GPL which means source code for Linux is available
Appligation packages are programs created by a company computer for users who operate in the field of general example such as:
1) FREE SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS
Utilized by the user who is engaged in graphics Desai
2) WORD PROCESSING SOFTWARE
Used by computer users either at school or at work
3) PROCESSING SOFTWARE FIGURES
Used also by the user, especially for the processing of numbers is the wide range of counting, making tables, graphs
4) SOFTWARE PUBLISHING (PUBLISHER)
Used also by users who engaged in publishing such a magazine
5) SHOFWERE DATA PROCESSING
Used to organize and memperoses set of data such as field
6) SOFWERE MULTIMEDIA
Used by the user computer mainly for presentation purposes
7) SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS INERNET
Protokolyang Internet applications is used to relate a person to the other parties far a part.Example Internet applications and software from the user side of the common use is as follows.
• HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), an Internet application that displays lines or pictures with some words that were given an underscore (Hypertext).
• E-mail (Electonic mail), an application of correspondence on the internet.
• Messenger, sofeare is used to communicate between one or more persons (conference), in addition to communication through text (message) can also be a sound (voice) or film (webcam)
1. Types of Application Program
• The software entertainment,
• Business software
• Software productivity
Definition of Brainware
Brainware is a man who was involved in operating and set inside a computer system. Interpreted also as an intellectual device that operates and explore the capabilities of the hardware and software.
Brainware including important parts of a computer system. Hardware can not work without software, while software and hardware can not work without the presence of Brainware. So these three components are interrelated and interdependent
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