Topic : Universe
Leader : Eis Siti Aisyah
In this occasion, we’d like to explain about universe which provides mining resources. Universe certainly is a place where we stand now. There are two kinds of version of universe formation theory. Big Bang Theory : based on this theory, the universe is formed due to the great mass explosion caused by a nuclear reaction. The second one is Expansion and Contraction Theory : this theory reveals that the galaxies and stars formed during the expansion. Universe is so wide even for us as a human beings. We’re just like nothing more than a dot. If we compared to the universe. Universe is a space where there’s biotic and abiotic life and every kind of nature phenomenon which has been revealed and unrevealed by humans.
Universe provides us a lot of resources that we need in our daily life. We can get them all just in universe. There’s nothing we can’t get from the universe. One of the universe’s resources are from mine workings. A hard working, but in the other side, we can get a large number of infest.
Let us begin from the history of the mine workings activity itself. From the beginning of civilization for about 4000 B.C until 3000 B.C, peoples start digging to get their needed, such as metals, ceramics, stone, etc. So, from a long long time ago, our fore fathers has been doing this kind of activity until nowadays implement by us.
Mines are places where there are research, general invstigation, exploration, suitable studies, construction, mining, processing and purifying, transport and disposal every kinds of natural element which gain from the botom of the earth.
Kinds of mine
In the world of mining, especially coal mining is known there are two types of mines, the open pit and underground mines. Where open pit coal mining is a way to open and explore the vast land to form a very wide open hole. While underground mining coal mining activity is a premises to make a hole / tunnel underground with no open land on it extensively.
The selection of these mines is determined by several things such as :
• Stripping Ratio (SR) / Ratio peeling an economical at the time. Understanding of the stripping ratio is: Comparison of land cover peeling coal in units of cubic meters of solid (read BCM) which must be discarded to produce 1 ton of coal. Can also be called a peeling ratio (with coal) in coal mines open.
• Method of mining, among others, such as direct-digging, direct dozing, ripping, drilling and blasting, truck and shovel, dragline systems, conveying, etc..
• Technology that will be used. This will be tailored to the chosen mining method.
• Environment and environmental impact assessments, given the mining activity is sure to bring a negative impact on the environment around the mining area.
• Expertise of human resources who worked as miners, both technical, non technical and K3.
• Availability of capital, given that mining activities require investments and operational costs are very large.
Types of open mines in general, the selection is based on a low level of SR, mining method is simple, the technology used in the form of units of heavy equipment and small-capacity dump trucks, as well as the availability of capital for both investment firms and operational.
- Kinds of mines based on material:
ü Gold Mining
ü Copper Mining
ü Manganese Mining
ü Coal Mining
ü Gold Mining
That is ground/stones form which contains gold taken from plateau and processed become pure gold.
ü Copper Mining
That is form chemistry element, hot conductor and good electricity which have a very slow corrosion
ü Manganese Mining
That is kind of black colored hard stone, but fragile. This mine occured in Nusa Tenggara Timur which is the best manganese producent in the world.
ü Coal Mining
Carbonic organic compounded sediment mines which built naturaly from plants remainder. Indonesia is the second bigest coal eksporter in the world after Australia. Materials which exported much are kinds of sub bituminous which can representate coals inIindonesia. Indonesian coal production has been increased about 11,1% in 2003 and the export number increased for about 18,3% in the same year. Majority Indonesian coal occured in South Sumatera.
Coal mining needs large space to be used. Certainly illegal logging will happen, it makes big disaster for the environment, such as flood and hill slide. And sometimes coal mining will make some noise that will disturb the villagers.
When we were mining, there will be some wasted material and usually the materials was thrown away to the river. So, the water must be dirty and can’t be used by the villagers.
Beside that, there will be also some dirty smoke when we were mining. The dirty smoke makes the air around the mining location become unhealthy to be absorb. So the villagers and some creatures around there will be interfered.
By digging mine continuously, the soil must be thinner. So it will be possible that hill slide and flood will happen, because of that there must be a lot of victims who will lost their life and lost some materials too.
And to make large space, the trees must be choped. So the place for animal to live will be decreased. Automatically the animal population will be decreased too.
There are several phases to be passed by the company prior to exploitation. When the process is on going through by company, then that moment the myths circulating in the mining community. On this occasion we want to illustrate the myths and facts of mining.
1. Mining is a capital intensive industry and high-risk
2. Mining is an industry that welfare of the people
3. Mining is a major contributor to foreign exchange
4. Mining is an industry that provides many employment
5. Mining is an industry that is responsible
1. Stages of the General Investigation
– Pros and Cons of birth to seeds that trigger a schism in the community
– Outstanding promise to weigh ‘heaven’ as the community will prosper, street will be fixed, electric light, a bustling city, etc., so that people’s lifestyles began to change
– Circulating information and confusing maze.
2. Stages of Exploration
– Conflicts of interest between the owner began to open. In this position, usually the Government began to be addressed
– Alignments on the company.
– Information is increasingly crisscrossing the meresahan masayatakat
– Persuasion, intimidation, terror and threats to the increasing
3. Exploitation Stages
– The destruction of mountains, forests, rivers and sea.
– Commencement of tailings disposal process that will poison the water and food sources.
– Commencement of the work of academics and consultants hired to prove that there is no pollution
– Increasing conflicts between communities and the public with state officials
– Mastery of natural resources, environmental pollution and the process of impoverishment
– Increased human rights violations, corruption and bribery
– Increased cases of immoral because it will facilitate the opening of gambling and prostitution
– Tailings and waste rock would be a problem from upstream to downstream.
4. Stages of Mine Collapse
– The more the decline of local economies and the increasing number of unemployed
– Limited time monitoring of environmental quality
– The formation of lakes and toxic acid that will continue to exist in the long term
– No restoration of ecosystems damaged by mining companies
– Budget to cover the protests drained many of the people while the company has left many problem.
One thing that can’t be denied is every work has a risk, so do with the mining activity nowadays could be causing a lot of negative impacts for envionment and peoples around the mining area.
This thing become polemic which should be aware bu company side and people around the exploitation area who must stay supervise between advantage and disadvantage of mining labor that will be buid. Because of that for ward of negative impact which will be caused by mining, so the side of company have to arrange a research of Environment Impact Analyst (AMDAL) which is suitable for area where there will become land of mining activity by the company.
AMDAL is a big impact investigation andit is very important for living environment, made on the planning step, and used for decision’s taking. Things which are learned in AMDAL process : physics-chemistry aspect, ecology, social-economy, social-culture, and people’s healt as an additional proper study for labor planing. In order to make AMDAL implementation goes effectively and can reach the expected target, the supervision combined with permission mechanism. Government rules about AMDAL clearly said that AMDAL is one of permission terms, where the decision makers has an obligation to consider the AMDAL study result before give the labor/activity permission. AMDAL used to take decision about helding/giving the labor/activity permission.
- Tools for area development planning
- Help decision taking about living environment feasibility from a labor plan and/or activity
- Give suggestion for technical detail design arrangement from a labor plan and/or activity
- Give suggestion for managing planning arrangement and living environment supervising
- Give information to people for impact which appeared from a labor plan and/or activity
Although like that, even AMDAL still hasn’t solve asymmetry or problem which comes up in society, because if companies are too serious digging resources exist then the impact which will be appear is threatening health condition of sociaty around, such as health disease like :
- Contaminate water for consumed.
- Respiration disease
According to Constitution Year 1999 about Forest, Number 41 Section 33 said that Stakeholders which is arranged in Section Number 27 and 29 have an obligation to protect, taking care, and welfare the forest as their labor places.
Because of this, every company should be responsible for minimize the negative impact that will be happen. These things also has been arrange by the government. In our country it called CSR whic gotten stronger especially after declared firmly in UU PT No. 40 Year 2007 which has been legalized by DPR. Said that PT which perform labor in sector and/or related with natural resources must perform social and environment responsibility (Constitution Number 74 section 1).
We know that mining activities can causing disaster for our environment if we’re over-exploits the universe. But here we can keep our environment save if we don’t exploits much, stay on the rules exist, and not accross the boundaries as well as we can. So that’s the way we get the advantage from our universe all at once we keep maintain the universe and keep it away from disaster in order to be given to our grandchild as legacy.
Thank you very much.
- Fauzan Kartika Putri
- Eis Siti Aisyah
- Siti falimatus Zahra
- Herol H samin
- Zaqi Silverano
- Dimas Arditya
- Fajar Dwi jayanto
- sylvi Yuliawati
- Ibrahim Ahmad
- agus Salim
- Zefri Gunibala
- Ade Rizky Setia Budhi
- Ais Ismail
- Khairul Anam
- Setya Usodo
- Rahim Biya
- Irfan Ahmad Fadilah